Dyspepsia: who and when to endoscope?

Introduction: One quarter of the population in the Western countries suffer from dyspepsia. Thus, if every patient with dyspepsia were to be endoscoped, then the cost to community and the individual would be substantial and the work load of the endoscopist would be large. In this article, I hope to address the evidence for and against endoscopy as first line investigation for dyspepsia vis-à-vis other modalities of treatment such as trial PPI (proton pump inhibitor) therapy and H.Pylori eradication.

Definition: The Rome III committee defined dyspepsia as one or more of the fol- lowing :a) postprandial fullness, b) early satiety, or c) epigastric pain or burning. Dyspeptic symptoms are most commonly caused by non-ulcer dyspepsia, peptic ulcer, reflux oesophagitis or rarely malignancy. However, the same symptoms can be caused by medication side effects, biliary or pancreatic disorder and motility disorder.

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Obscure Gastrointestinal bleeding: Investigation of the small bowel – The Last Frontier

Introduction: Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) is increasingly becoming a common problem in the aging population. These patients, typically, had at least one set of normal gastroscopy and colonoscopy without being able to detect a site of blood loss in the upper or lower gastrointestinal tract.

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Quality in Colonoscopy- Colonoscopist’s Adenoma Detection Rate(ADR)

While colonoscopy and polypectomy reduced incidence of bowel cancer in 76% and reduced bowel cancer related mortality in 53% in a cohort of post-polypectomy pa- tients ( National bowel cancer study), the magnitude of such prevention depends on your colonoscopist’s adenoma detection rate (ADR). Colonoscopist’s ADR is de- fined as the percentage of consecutive screening (asymptomatic) patients who had at least one adenoma removed. A colonoscopist’s ADR is inversely proportional to post-colonoscopy missed cancers and adenomas. Higher the ADR less the missed colorectal cancers (CRC) and polyps (adenomas) for these patients in the post – polypectomy years.

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