There is no controversy that H. Pylori (HP) causes gastritis. However, to date, there is no direct evidence that HP causes any ulcers. There is good statistical correlation between ulcer diseases and HP yet statistical correlation does not imply causality. HP induced gastritis is associated with hypochlorohydria and increased bicarbonate secretion seen with gastric ulcer (GU). Low acid and high bicarbonate secretion associated with HP has been found to be protective against the development of reflux oesophagitis (GORD). This is believed to be the reason why GORD develops for the first time after eradication of HP for duodenal ulcers (DU)(1).Despite greater than 90% correlation of HP and DU, paradoxically acid secretion is increased and bicarbonate secretion is decreased in DU. Yet HP eradication reduces relapse of DU although not to the extent it was believed in the past. Recent meta-analysis of randomized trials indicate a relapse rate of 20% of DU 6 months after HP eradication(2).So what shall we do? The following are my suggestions:
There is increasing use of warfarin and antiplatelet agents in the aging population for various indications. These patients are often referred for endoscopy for investigation of abdominal pain, dyspepsia, change of bowel habit, family history of bowel cancer, positive faecal occult blood, anaemia, polyp surveillance etc.
Introduction: One quarter of the population in the Western countries suffer from dyspepsia. Thus, if every patient with dyspepsia were to be endoscoped, then the cost to community and the individual would be substantial and the work load of the endoscopist would be large. In this article, I hope to address the evidence for and against endoscopy as first line investigation for dyspepsia vis-à-vis other modalities of treatment such as trial PPI (proton pump inhibitor) therapy and H.Pylori eradication.
Definition: The Rome III committee defined dyspepsia as one or more of the fol- lowing :a) postprandial fullness, b) early satiety, or c) epigastric pain or burning. Dyspeptic symptoms are most commonly caused by non-ulcer dyspepsia, peptic ulcer, reflux oesophagitis or rarely malignancy. However, the same symptoms can be caused by medication side effects, biliary or pancreatic disorder and motility disorder.